Monday, October 2, 2023 | Back issues
Courthouse News Service Courthouse News Service

Rural Economy Becomes Dependent on Immigration Prisons

Tucked away in the dense forest of rural Louisiana is a barbed wire-ringed prison that has quickly grown into a major detention center for immigrants arrested at the border.

WINNFIELD, La. (AP) — Tucked away in the dense forest of rural Louisiana is a barbed wire-ringed prison that has quickly grown into a major detention center for immigrants arrested at the border.

The Winn Correctional Center is one of eight Louisiana jails that have started housing asylum-seekers and other immigrants over the past year, making Louisiana a remote epicenter for immigrant detention under President Donald Trump. The Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency says it's holding about 8,000 immigrants in Louisiana out of 51,000 nationally.

These facilities, a mix of old state prisons and local jails, are several hours away from New Orleans and other major cities, far from most immigrant rights' groups and immigration attorneys. Prisoners complain of mistreatment and prolonged detention.

"I knew they would detain us, but I never thought it would be for this long," said Howard Antonio Benavides Jr., an 18-year-old from Venezuela who has been at Winn for three months.

The surge in detention has occurred against the backdrop of a criminal justice overhaul in Louisiana that has reduced the state's prison population and threatened the economies of the small towns that rely on jails.

ICE has stepped into the void. At Winn, which started detaining immigrants in May, employee salaries have risen from $10 an hour to $18.50. Local officials have signed contracts that guarantee millions in payments to the local government, the state, and a private prison company based in Louisiana, while still allowing ICE to detain people at a daily cost well below its national average.

ICE refused several requests to comment on why it focused on Louisiana. In a statement, it said it identifies "contracts that can be modified to accommodate increased agency needs."

ICE and the private prison company operating the jail, LaSalle Corrections, allowed The Associated Press to visit Winn for three hours in September and take photos and video under the condition that detainees’ faces not be shown.

The AP was not allowed to speak to any detainee but Benavides, who agreed to an interview through his attorney. As a large group of prisoners held in one tier started shouting "come here," in Spanish, jail officials prevented observers from approaching them and directed them outside. The men continued to shout from the windows.

Nearly 1,500 people are being held at Winn, where they sleep on twin beds in long, narrow units with barred gates. Formerly a medium-security prison, Winn has a dining hall, outdoor soccer fields, a gymnasium, and a chapel built by former inmates.

During the AP's visit, a group played soccer, with others refereeing the game and keeping score. Around 200 people sat in the chapel listening to another detainee — a Pentecostal preacher — speak of God and Jesus.

Most of the detainees appeared to be Spanish speakers. Others spoke Hindi and wore orange coverings wrapped around their heads.

A few classrooms have been turned into virtual courtrooms with video teleconferencing equipment where detainees appear before immigration judges based in New Mexico. Nurses and medical staff provide check-ups at a clinic on site.

Detainees are required to walk from site to site with their hands clasped behind their backs, as if handcuffed. Most employees don't speak Spanish or Hindi and communicate with prisoners using hand signals or a few words of English that one person can translate to others.


Benavides said he was sent here this year after he and his father sought asylum in June at a port of entry in El Paso, Texas. The two were detained together in Texas and Mississippi, then taken to separate jails in Louisiana. They haven't been allowed to speak to each other since.

In interviews, immigrants and their families said officials sometimes used a solitary confinement cell to hold detainees accused of violating rules. To Winn's Spanish speakers, it is known as a pozo, meaning a well or a hole.

ICE says it complies with its own rules on segregating inmates, which say detainees can be placed in solitary confinement for "presenting a clear threat to the security of the facility," and said in a statement that it is "committed to ensuring that those in our custody reside in safe, secure and humane environments and under appropriate conditions of confinement."

Authorities at Winn say there's been little trouble so far, as immigrants are better behaved and easier to oversee than convicts.

"When you have convicted felons, they act a lot different," said warden Keith Deville.

The 51,000 immigrants that ICE is holding across the country is just short of an agency record set this year and is several thousand more than authorized by Congress. The number of detainees has remained above 50,000 even as border crossings have fallen in recent months and the Trump administration has enacted new asylum restrictions and programs to reject immigration, including forcing tens of thousands of people to wait in Mexico while immigration courts review their cases.

Advocates blame the administration for detaining legitimate asylum-seekers who could be released with court dates. They say the jails in Louisiana epitomize the problem.

A federal judge recently ruled that ICE was unlawfully refusing to release asylum-seekers in Louisiana under its authority to grant parole. Lawyers say very few people are granted parole from Winn or other immigration prisons in the state. Without it, detainees must request bond from an immigration judge, which can take months.

The relatives of one person detained at Winn provided the AP with a typewritten list of conditions for release they said was posted inside the jail, weeks after the judge's ruling. The four conditions were pregnancy, being underage, critical illness such as Stage 4 cancer, or being a witness in a federal criminal case.

Luz Lopez, an attorney with the Southern Poverty Law Center, said she has heard many reports of immigrants being given the list, which she said appears to violate ICE's own guidelines for granting parole.

ICE said reports about the list were "false" and said it decides whether to release inmates on a case-by-case basis — a statement received with grave doubt by immigration attorneys.

Pedro Cordoves Diaz, a 26-year-old from Cuba, was released from Winn in late September, the day the AP visited the facility. He was released on $10,000 bond, paid by relatives in New Jersey.

"I stayed in my bed waiting for the moment to leave to arrive," he said.

Immigration detention has become increasingly controversial during the Trump administration, which separated thousands of families as part of a "zero-tolerance" policy at the Mexican border.

ICE has expanded its presence in Louisiana as other states have told the agency to stay out.

California and Illinois have banned private immigration jails altogether, and even in conservative Texas, the Republican-led government in Williamson County voted to end ICE detention at a 500-bed jail.


There's no such resistance in Winn Parish or other rural Louisiana communities.

Winnfield is the largest city in the parish, with 4,400 people — down from 5,700 two decades ago — and the birthplace of legendary Gov. Huey Long. Its tiny downtown has as many empty storefronts as open shops. Timber trucks carrying chopped logs from surrounding forests roll down the highway. Sheriff Cranford Jordan said that aside from lumber, the area's two biggest job engines are schools and the prison.

A decline in prison population could lead to the prison closing, Jordan said.

"It would be devastating," he said. "You'd see people moving, bankruptcy. It would be like an automobile plant closing."

Jordan, ICE, and LaSalle Corrections, which was already running the prison, agreed in May to a five-year contract, with an option to add five more.

ICE pays around $70 per day per inmate, Jordan said, more than double what the state was paying to house criminals. That is still well below what ICE pays nationally, which it estimated at $133 per day in 2017.

Jordan said he supported ICE coming in and called the influx of immigrant detainees a "blessing" of jobs and funding.

As ICE detention has grown in the state, so has the role of LaSalle Corrections, a privately held company based in Ruston, Louisiana.

LaSalle operates six of the eight converted jails that have opened since last year. In August, LaSalle hired the former acting director of ICE's enforcement and removal division in New Orleans as a development executive. LaSalle also made a $2,000 contribution to the sheriff's campaign in March.

It has faced criticism at its prisons before.

LaSalle was sued after an inmate died in 2015 at its jail in Texarkana, Texas. A federal magistrate judge this year found that jail staff failed to do daily checks and violated "basic nursing standards" in their treatment of the inmate.

Four former guards at the Richwood Correctional Center in Louisiana, also operated by LaSalle, were sentenced to federal prison terms after a 2016 incident in which inmates were pepper-sprayed while kneeling and handcuffed. Richwood became an immigration prison this year.

LaSalle declined to comment on complaints about mistreatment or about how immigration detention factors into its business.

The facilities are spread out across Louisiana, connected by rural roads winding through forests and farmland. To advocates, the isolation is a serious problem.

"Just the fact that you're detaining people in such rural, isolated places makes it not only difficult for the person themselves to fight their case, but it even makes it nearly impossible for them to get attorneys to represent them," said Homero López, executive director of the New Orleans-based Immigration Services and Legal Advocacy.

One of the few people to visit most of the facilities across Louisiana is Alex Melendez, who with his son runs a taxi service to pick up immigrants.

For rates starting at $100, he drives people to the long-distance bus station or airport in Alexandria, just over an hour away from Winn, or sometimes to New Orleans or Houston, each four hours away.

Calls for pickups have surged in the past year, sometimes with calls from four jails in one day.

Melendez says he listens to the people’s stories about why they fled their homes and what it was like for them inside. Some Spanish speakers are confounded by grits, a Southern staple seldom found outside the United States, and refer to them as "arroz sin sabor" — tasteless rice.

Sometimes they get emotional. It happened recently when Melendez drove up to another jail to pick up someone who had just been released.

"He just kneeled down," he said. "He praised the Lord. He thanked the Lord he was free."

Categories / Civil Rights, Government

Read the Top 8

Sign up for the Top 8, a roundup of the day's top stories delivered directly to your inbox Monday through Friday.